Hello, friends. After the publication of the article "Lenin died, but his business lives on, or new secrets of electricity in the 19th century" it would probably be interesting, but how outdoor lighting was done in Europe in the 19th century.
These are typical designs of 19th century gas lamps. On the left is an autonomous flashlight, a container with gas is inside his leg. On the right - with centralized gas supply, gas flows through the main pipe, it can be seen in the photo. The gas is ignited by a special employee, he even has a uniform, apparently, everything is grown-up. Even in a public Parisian toilet, where there are inscriptions in Russian, such lamps are present.
Nothing unusual, quite a common technical solution of that time. But there are other technical solutions as well.
As you can see, there is a gas lamp on the left, and an electric one on the right. Photo of 1891. To distinguish them from each other is not easy, but very simple. The upper part of the electric flashlight is more massive. Do not confuse them with Arganda or Buda lamps, which require mandatory openings for the exit of combustion products. They are not visible. The wires for the electric flashlight are not suitable. How did he burn? The answer to this question was actually given in the last article. It turns out that there were unipolar electric lamps that connected to the metal housing of the lighting fixture and gave light. The body, in turn, was connected to the building's metal connections. But there is no building here. Where did the metal connection come from? Either it goes underground (which is unlikely, we all know how electricity behaves in the ground),or, nevertheless, the upper massive part of the lantern received some kind of electric field from the outside (from the surrounding space). We will not consider underground electrical cables, at that time if they were, it was only for communication. Probably, there is no point in further considering gas lamps, their design is well understood by everyone. What distinguishes them from electric lights is, as a rule, a nozzle or wick of various types standing in the middle, as well as glowing nets. The nozzles in the top photos are seen quite well. Although it is possible that electric lights had a similar look:What distinguishes them from electric lights is, as a rule, a nozzle or wick of various types standing in the middle, as well as heating nets. The nozzles in the top photos are seen quite well. Although it is possible that electric lights had a similar look:What distinguishes them from electric lights is, as a rule, a nozzle or wick of various types standing in the middle, as well as heating nets. The nozzles in the top photos are seen quite well. Although it is possible that electric lights had a similar look:
If you look closely, the light element of this flashlight is an ordinary needle connected to the body of the flashlight. Gas hoses or pipes are not suitable for it. Where could the gas come from here? And there is no container for storing it. The lantern is structurally combined with a metal fence, no external gas pipelines are visible. Was the gas coming out of the ground? Most likely not, and this is also an electric torch. But due to the controversy, we will no longer consider such constructions either.
A very interesting design solution. The lantern is fixed in the arch part, obviously, to the metal connection outlet. Ancient or even medieval builders never provided gas distribution points in the arches. And the wick is not visible in the lantern itself.
An equally interesting solution. It can be seen that some kind of metal connection approaches the lantern from above, it is either a rod or a pipe. But on the lantern itself, no perforation is visible, which is necessary for sucking in air or ejecting combustion products. There is no protective mesh on the plafond either.
And here the lantern is simply suspended on cables. The design is clearly not designed for its frequent raising and lowering, judging by the height of the suspension. The wires do not fit to it, and you can see that on the left the cable is fixed to some kind of metal vertical pipe.
This is a lantern that is clearly not designed to be ignited from below by a torch. There were no piezoelectric elements at that time. There is no mesh on the plafond, which means that there was no high-temperature heating inside it. There are no metal connections (at least visible) with the building, and there are no wires either.
This solution is from the same series. The lantern stands on a non-metallic stand. If you look closely, you can again see some small levers near the plafonds.
Here is a completely similar design.
Very mannered construction. If it was a lantern (which is most likely), and not a props, then the principle of its operation defies logic. There are no gas pipelines and no wires either.
And this lantern could be considered a gas one, if not for the presence of a lamp inside it. And to it there is a complete absence of both pipes and wires. Wondering what's under the cover on the railing?
And here I ask you to pay attention not to the lantern, but to the incomprehensible thing above the arch. What it is? Just another lantern, only shining directed along the street. Maybe his task was not lighting, but attracting the attention of passers-by. Hard to tell.
Summing up, I want to say that electric lighting on the streets of cities in the 19th century also took place, as well as in residential premises. Perhaps, it could not withstand competition with gas lamps and incandescent lamps that appeared later, as a result of which it was replaced and went down in history.
Until next time.